Diabetes Type 1 and 2 Treatment in Germany
Diabetes type 1 and 2 is the most common endocrine disorder encountered in clinical practice. Diabetes type 1 and 2 is a condition where there is inadequate insulin in the body for the patient’s metabolic needs. Metabolism is a term that describes the means by which the body handles the variety of nutrients taken in from a dietary source. Fats, proteins, and sugars are absorbed and transported to the liver for initial processing. In that organ, these nutrients are either stored, broken down, shipped out for use by other organs or changed in some way to meet later nutritional needs. This factory-like process is controlled by the availability of the nutrients and by the hormones bathing the liver, including insulin, glucagon, and epinephrine. In addition, these hormones have effects on the manner in which distant organs, such as muscle tissue and fat tissue, handle the available nutrients.An inadequacy of insulin can come about for at least two important reasons.
There simply may be very low levels of insulin circulating in the blood stream. This occurs when the pancreas has been damaged, since the islet cells of the pancreas are responsible for secretion of insulin. However, another mechanism that may lead to insulin inadequacy is insulin resistance. This occurs when, despite adequate circulating levels of insulin, the target organs for insulin’s action (liver, muscle, fat) are not responsive to the circulating insulin levels. Insulin (and other hormones) works by binding to a specific receptor on the surface of its target organs. However, binding to the receptor is only the first step in insulin action, and it has now been determined that a so-called “postreceptor”defect is also present in diabetes, further reducing the cell’s ability in diabetes, further reducing the cell’s ability to respond to insulin’s signals.